Our Projects

Power System Projects

Client: Sabah Electricity S. B.

Location: East Malaysia

The project was responsible for developing comprehensive computer models for the network and protection on the Sabah Electricity statewide interconnected power system comprised of the 275kV, 132kV, 66kV and 33kV networks forming the state’s West Coast plus Northern (WCG) and East Coast (ECG) grids.

Scope of works included;

Sourcing necessary primary plant data and calculating the self and mutual impedances for all new and existing transmission lines using tower construction details, line profiles, configurations of circuits in the various right of ways along the feeder lengths and manufacturer’s conductor and cable data.

Collecting and reviewing test certificate data for all new and existing transformers and generators, preparing suitable transformer models for each winding configuration, vector group pairing and generator representations to capture the sub-transient, transient and synchronous of individual generators and system sources.

Establishing system load profiles and generation schedules to determine system fault levels and identifying plant damage concerns from equipment ratings and fault clearing times under normal and contingency scenarios.

Developing a comprehensive computer model of the non-unit current and impedance-based protection elements, including the internal relay logic, supervision elements, comparator equations and the associated scheme logic for time-based protection simulations on critical feeders and substations.

Major Deliverables

A Data Book detailing the models for each system component (lines, transformers, reactive plant etc.), input data for the calculation of all model parameters and the model values for each plant item,

Comprehensive computer models of the Sabah Electricity Transmission and sub-transmission systems suitable for load flow and unsymmetrical fault analysis

Detailed models of the time graded Distance and Overcurrent/Earth Fault protection down to the 33kV level, including scheme logic and tele-protection systems.

Learn more about Protection System Modelling services

Client: Sarawak Energy

Location: East Malaysia

Delivery of statewide reviews of the time graded Distance and Overcurrent/Earth Fault protection elements on the Sarawak Energy transmission and extensive distribution networks.

Comprehensive protection performance assessments across the entire network under a range of credible operating contingencies and N-1 protection failures.

Applied Power Technologies evaluated protection performance in terms of:

  • operating times to safeguard against plant damage and system instability
  • sensitivity for reliability
  • coordination for security clearance of faults

Applied Power Technologies assessed sensitivity in terms of reach/cover of the primary elements and the operation of the supervisory elements with the operating thresholds applied in the relay setting.

Grading of the protection schemes considered the coordination between primary, local or remote backup schemes throughout the entire fault clearing cycle, not just fault inception. The assessment was relay type antagonistic, and miscoordinations between distance, overcurrent, voltage, negative phase sequence elements throughout the system, not simply along a specified path, were considered.

Suitable mitigation actions were designed to address performance shortcomings, with a risk assessment undertaken to prioritise the implementation of the remedial actions.

Major Deliverables

A series of regional reports detailing the existing performance and risk levels, the required mitigation measures and any residual risks to inform protection and operating staff on the behaviour and performance of their protection systems.

Learn more about Protection Security Assessments

Client: Tenaga Nasional Bhd (TNB)

Location: Malaysia

Applied Power Technologies has presented a number of Power System Protection training courses as part of the technology transfer component of projects delivered to power utilities in the Asian-Pacific region.

These courses have centred around the application of the PSS CAPE Protection engineering software to perform the design and review activities required to be undertaken by their engineering staff. They have covered technical considerations and design criteria and the methodologies and processes that are widely accepted as best practices for undertaking protection setting designs and large scale protection system security reviews. The requirements for undertaking these activities on high voltage transmission systems and those required for the systems in place on lower voltage distribution networks have been covered.

The outcomes of these technology transfer sessions have been;

  • understanding of the network models for electrical plant items, e.g. line constants and main influencing factors, transformers, shunts etc. and the associated data requirements to ensure accurate representation in computer simulations,
  • sound understanding of the electrical factors influencing the performance of the different protection system elements employed on transmission and distribution systems,
  • knowledge of the criteria used to ensure adequate provision is made for the effects of these factors for the power system being protected,
  • appreciation of the functionality of the software application and a working knowledge of how these should be applied to address the design and review tasks, specifically;
    • the modelling of relay specific comparator loop equations, supervision elements, internal logic and settings and user scheme logic to enable design and review activities to consider the performance of the complete protection scheme and not simply the main protection elements, based on the currents and voltages presented to the relay,
    • the sophisticated time-stepped analysis tool, powerful short circuit algorithms and macro development tools that enable automation of the fault and contingency studies required for relay setting designs and protection security assessments (sensitivity and coordination review.

Learn more about Technology Transfer services

Partnering with you to address the increasing demands on your protection engineers